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Character Entity References in HTML 4 and XHTML 1.0

Here is a set of tables containing the 252 allowed entities in HTML 4 and XHTML 1.0, as described in section 24 of the official HTML 4 specifications, published by the W3C. I have divided them into my own, hopefully logical, categories:

Each table has five columns. The first column contains the entity reference, in the form &entity_name;, that is, an ampersand, the entity name, and then a semi colon. The second column displays how that entity appears in your browser. The proper character will only appear if you have a font that can display it. The third column contains the number reference for the same character in the form &#number;, that is, an ampersand, a hash symbol (which signals that a number reference is coming), the character's number, and then a semi colon. The fourth column shows how the number reference displays in your browser. Again, the proper character is only displayed if the default font selected in your browser preferences contains such a character.

The fifth column contains a description of the character, and an occasional note. You can either hover over the note link to see the note, or click it to go the notes page, which will open in a separate window.

There are many ways to order character entities. You can order them alphabetically, by number, or by Unicode collection, to mention just a few methods. I find all of these rather arbitrary. So, I have taken the liberty of classifying them into what I consider logical categories, and sometimes subcategories, and then by alphabetical order. I hope you find it useful. And don't forget, you can always use your browser's Find command to find a particular word or phrase within this page.

For more information on how to use these entities in your Web pages, see HTML, XHTML, and CSS, Sixth Edition by Elizabeth Castro.

Entities for characters with special meaning in HTML and XHTML

EntityEntity
Displayed
NumberNumber
Displayed
Description
&&&&ampersand
>>>>greater-than sign
&lt;<&#60;<less-than sign
&quot;"&#34;"quotation mark = APL quote

Entities for accented characters, accents, and other diacritics from Western European Languages

EntityEntity
Displayed
NumberNumber
Displayed
Description
&acute;´&#180;´acute accent = spacing acute
&cedil;¸&#184;¸cedilla = spacing cedilla
&circ;ˆ&#710;ˆmodifier letter circumflex accent
&macr;¯&#175;¯macron = spacing macron = overline = APL overbar
&middot;·&#183;·middle dot = Georgian comma = Greek middle dot
&tilde;˜&#732;˜small tilde
&uml;¨&#168;¨diaeresis = spacing diaeresis
&Aacute;Á&#193;Álatin capital letter A with acute
&aacute;á&#225;álatin small letter a with acute
&Acirc;Â&#194;Âlatin capital letter A with circumflex
&acirc;â&#226;âlatin small letter a with circumflex
&AElig;Æ&#198;Ælatin capital letter AE = latin capital ligature AE
&aelig;æ&#230;ælatin small letter ae = latin small ligature ae
&Agrave;À&#192;Àlatin capital letter A with grave = latin capital letter A grave
&agrave;à&#224;àlatin small letter a with grave = latin small letter a grave
&Aring;Å&#197;Ålatin capital letter A with ring above = latin capital letter A ring
&aring;å&#229;ålatin small letter a with ring above = latin small letter a ring
&Atilde;Ã&#195;Ãlatin capital letter A with tilde
&atilde;ã&#227;ãlatin small letter a with tilde
&Auml;Ä&#196;Älatin capital letter A with diaeresis
&auml;ä&#228;älatin small letter a with diaeresis
&Ccedil;Ç&#199;Çlatin capital letter C with cedilla
&ccedil;ç&#231;çlatin small letter c with cedilla
&Eacute;É&#201;Élatin capital letter E with acute
&eacute;é&#233;élatin small letter e with acute
&Ecirc;Ê&#202;Êlatin capital letter E with circumflex
&ecirc;ê&#234;êlatin small letter e with circumflex
&Egrave;È&#200;Èlatin capital letter E with grave
&egrave;è&#232;èlatin small letter e with grave
&ETH;Ð&#208;Ðlatin capital letter ETH
&eth;ð&#240;ðlatin small letter eth
&Euml;Ë&#203;Ëlatin capital letter E with diaeresis
&euml;ë&#235;ëlatin small letter e with diaeresis
&Iacute;Í&#205;Ílatin capital letter I with acute
&iacute;í&#237;ílatin small letter i with acute
&Icirc;Î&#206;Îlatin capital letter I with circumflex
&icirc;î&#238;îlatin small letter i with circumflex
&Igrave;Ì&#204;Ìlatin capital letter I with grave
&igrave;ì&#236;ìlatin small letter i with grave
&Iuml;Ï&#207;Ïlatin capital letter I with diaeresis
&iuml;ï&#239;ïlatin small letter i with diaeresis
&Ntilde;Ñ&#209;Ñlatin capital letter N with tilde
&ntilde;ñ&#241;ñlatin small letter n with tilde
&Oacute;Ó&#211;Ólatin capital letter O with acute
&oacute;ó&#243;ólatin small letter o with acute
&Ocirc;Ô&#212;Ôlatin capital letter O with circumflex
&ocirc;ô&#244;ôlatin small letter o with circumflex
&OElig;Œ&#338;Œlatin capital ligature OE
&oelig;œ&#339;œlatin small ligature oe (note)
&Ograve;Ò&#210;Òlatin capital letter O with grave
&ograve;ò&#242;òlatin small letter o with grave
&Oslash;Ø&#216;Ølatin capital letter O with stroke = latin capital letter O slash
&oslash;ø&#248;ølatin small letter o with stroke, = latin small letter o slash
&Otilde;Õ&#213;Õlatin capital letter O with tilde
&otilde;õ&#245;õlatin small letter o with tilde
&Ouml;Ö&#214;Ölatin capital letter O with diaeresis
&ouml;ö&#246;ölatin small letter o with diaeresis
&Scaron;Š&#352;Šlatin capital letter S with caron
&scaron;š&#353;šlatin small letter s with caron
&szlig;ß&#223;ßlatin small letter sharp s = ess-zed
&THORN;Þ&#222;Þlatin capital letter THORN
&thorn;þ&#254;þlatin small letter thorn
&Uacute;Ú&#218;Úlatin capital letter U with acute
&uacute;ú&#250;úlatin small letter u with acute
&Ucirc;Û&#219;Ûlatin capital letter U with circumflex
&ucirc;û&#251;ûlatin small letter u with circumflex
&Ugrave;Ù&#217;Ùlatin capital letter U with grave
&ugrave;ù&#249;ùlatin small letter u with grave
&Uuml;Ü&#220;Ülatin capital letter U with diaeresis
&uuml;ü&#252;ülatin small letter u with diaeresis
&Yacute;Ý&#221;Ýlatin capital letter Y with acute
&yacute;ý&#253;ýlatin small letter y with acute
&yuml;ÿ&#255;ÿlatin small letter y with diaeresis
&Yuml;Ÿ&#376;Ÿlatin capital letter Y with diaeresis

Entities for punctuation characters

EntityEntity
Displayed
NumberNumber
Displayed
Description
&cent;¢&#162;¢cent sign
&curren;¤&#164;¤currency sign
&euro;&#8364;euro sign
&pound;£&#163;£pound sign
&yen;¥&#165;¥yen sign = yuan sign
&brvbar;¦&#166;¦broken bar = broken vertical bar
&bull;&#8226;bullet = black small circle (note)
&copy;©&#169;©copyright sign
&dagger;&#8224;dagger
&Dagger;&#8225;double dagger
&frasl;&#8260;fraction slash
&hellip;&#8230;horizontal ellipsis = three dot leader
&iexcl;¡&#161;¡inverted exclamation mark
&image;&#8465;blackletter capital I = imaginary part
&iquest;¿&#191;¿inverted question mark = turned question mark
&lrm;&#8206;left-to-right mark (for formatting only)
&mdash;&#8212;em dash
&ndash;&#8211;en dash
&not;¬&#172;¬not sign
&oline;&#8254;overline = spacing overscore
&ordf;ª&#170;ªfeminine ordinal indicator
&ordm;º&#186;ºmasculine ordinal indicator
&para;&#182;pilcrow sign = paragraph sign
&permil;&#8240;per mille sign
&prime;&#8242;prime = minutes = feet
&Prime;&#8243;double prime = seconds = inches
&real;&#8476;blackletter capital R = real part symbol
&reg;®&#174;®registered sign = registered trade mark sign
&rlm;&#8207;right-to-left mark (for formatting only)
&sect;§&#167;§section sign
&shy;­&#173;­soft hyphen = discretionary hyphen (displays incorrectly on Mac)
&sup1;¹&#185;¹superscript one = superscript digit one
&trade;&#8482;trade mark sign
&weierp;&#8472;script capital P = power set = Weierstrass p
&bdquo;&#8222;double low-9 quotation mark
&laquo;«&#171;«left-pointing double angle quotation mark = left pointing guillemet
&ldquo;&#8220;left double quotation mark
&lsaquo;&#8249;single left-pointing angle quotation mark (note)
&lsquo;&#8216;left single quotation mark
&raquo;»&#187;»right-pointing double angle quotation mark = right pointing guillemet
&rdquo;&#8221;right double quotation mark
&rsaquo;&#8250;single right-pointing angle quotation mark (note)
&rsquo;&#8217;right single quotation mark
&sbquo;&#8218;single low-9 quotation mark
&emsp;&#8195;em space
&ensp;&#8194;en space
&nbsp; &#160; no-break space = non-breaking space
&thinsp;&#8201;thin space
&zwj;&#8205;zero width joiner
&zwnj;&#8204;zero width non-joiner

Entities for mathematical and technical characters (including Greek)

EntityEntity
Displayed
NumberNumber
Displayed
Description
&deg;°&#176;°degree sign
&divide;÷&#247;÷division sign
&frac12;½&#189;½vulgar fraction one half = fraction one half
&frac14;¼&#188;¼vulgar fraction one quarter = fraction one quarter
&frac34;¾&#190;¾vulgar fraction three quarters = fraction three quarters
&ge;&#8805;greater-than or equal to
&le;&#8804;less-than or equal to
&minus;&#8722;minus sign
&sup2;²&#178;²superscript two = superscript digit two = squared
&sup3;³&#179;³superscript three = superscript digit three = cubed
&times;×&#215;×multiplication sign
&alefsym;&#8501;alef symbol = first transfinite cardinal (note)
&and;&#8743;logical and = wedge
&ang;&#8736;angle
&asymp;&#8776;almost equal to = asymptotic to
&cap;&#8745;intersection = cap
&cong;&#8773;approximately equal to
&cup;&#8746;union = cup
&empty;&#8709;empty set = null set = diameter
&equiv;&#8801;identical to
&exist;&#8707;there exists
&fnof;ƒ&#402;ƒlatin small f with hook = function = florin
&forall;&#8704;for all
&infin;&#8734;infinity
&int;&#8747;integral
&isin;&#8712;element of
&lang;&#9001;left-pointing angle bracket = bra (note)
&lceil;&#8968;left ceiling = apl upstile
&lfloor;&#8970;left floor = apl downstile
&lowast;&#8727;asterisk operator
&micro;µ&#181;µmicro sign
&nabla;&#8711;nabla = backward difference
&ne;&#8800;not equal to
&ni;&#8715;contains as member (note)
&notin;&#8713;not an element of
&nsub;&#8836;not a subset of
&oplus;&#8853;circled plus = direct sum
&or;&#8744;logical or = vee
&otimes;&#8855;circled times = vector product
&part;&#8706;partial differential
&perp;&#8869;up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular
&plusmn;±&#177;±plus-minus sign = plus-or-minus sign
&prod;&#8719;n-ary product = product sign (note)
&prop;&#8733;proportional to
&radic;&#8730;square root = radical sign
&rang;&#9002;right-pointing angle bracket = ket (note)
&rceil;&#8969;right ceiling
&rfloor;&#8971;right floor
&sdot;&#8901;dot operator (note)
&sim;&#8764;tilde operator = varies with = similar to (note)
&sub;&#8834;subset of
&sube;&#8838;subset of or equal to
&sum;&#8721;n-ary sumation (note)
&sup;&#8835;superset of (note)
&supe;&#8839;superset of or equal to
&there4;&#8756;therefore
&Alpha;Α&#913;Αgreek capital letter alpha
&alpha;α&#945;αgreek small letter alpha
&Beta;Β&#914;Βgreek capital letter beta
&beta;β&#946;βgreek small letter beta
&Chi;Χ&#935;Χgreek capital letter chi
&chi;χ&#967;χgreek small letter chi
&Delta;Δ&#916;Δgreek capital letter delta
&delta;δ&#948;δgreek small letter delta
&Epsilon;Ε&#917;Εgreek capital letter epsilon
&epsilon;ε&#949;εgreek small letter epsilon
&Eta;Η&#919;Ηgreek capital letter eta
&eta;η&#951;ηgreek small letter eta
&Gamma;Γ&#915;Γgreek capital letter gamma
&gamma;γ&#947;γgreek small letter gamma
&Iota;Ι&#921;Ιgreek capital letter iota
&iota;ι&#953;ιgreek small letter iota
&Kappa;Κ&#922;Κgreek capital letter kappa
&kappa;κ&#954;κgreek small letter kappa
&Lambda;Λ&#923;Λgreek capital letter lambda
&lambda;λ&#955;λgreek small letter lambda
&Mu;Μ&#924;Μgreek capital letter mu
&mu;μ&#956;μgreek small letter mu
&Nu;Ν&#925;Νgreek capital letter nu
&nu;ν&#957;νgreek small letter nu
&Omega;Ω&#937;Ωgreek capital letter omega
&omega;ω&#969;ωgreek small letter omega
&Omicron;Ο&#927;Οgreek capital letter omicron
&omicron;ο&#959;οgreek small letter omicron
&Phi;Φ&#934;Φgreek capital letter phi
&phi;φ&#966;φgreek small letter phi
&Pi;Π&#928;Πgreek capital letter pi
&pi;π&#960;πgreek small letter pi
&piv;ϖ&#982;ϖgreek pi symbol
&Psi;Ψ&#936;Ψgreek capital letter psi
&psi;ψ&#968;ψgreek small letter psi
&Rho;Ρ&#929;Ρgreek capital letter rho
&rho;ρ&#961;ρgreek small letter rho
&Sigma;Σ&#931;Σgreek capital letter sigma
&sigma;σ&#963;σgreek small letter sigma
&sigmaf;ς&#962;ςgreek small letter final sigma (note)
&Tau;Τ&#932;Τgreek capital letter tau
&tau;τ&#964;τgreek small letter tau
&Theta;Θ&#920;Θgreek capital letter theta
&theta;θ&#952;θgreek small letter theta
&thetasym;ϑ&#977;ϑgreek small letter theta symbol
&upsih;ϒ&#978;ϒgreek upsilon with hook symbol
&Upsilon;Υ&#933;Υgreek capital letter upsilon
&upsilon;υ&#965;υgreek small letter upsilon
&Xi;Ξ&#926;Ξgreek capital letter xi
&xi;ξ&#958;ξgreek small letter xi
&Zeta;Ζ&#918;Ζgreek capital letter zeta
&zeta;ζ&#950;ζgreek small letter zeta

Entities for shapes and arrows

EntityEntity
Displayed
NumberNumber
Displayed
Description
&crarr;&#8629;downwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return
&darr;&#8595;downwards arrow
&dArr;&#8659;downwards double arrow
&harr;&#8596;left right arrow
&hArr;&#8660;left right double arrow
&larr;&#8592;leftwards arrow
&lArr;&#8656;leftwards double arrow (note)
&rarr;&#8594;rightwards arrow
&rArr;&#8658;rightwards double arrow (note)
&uarr;&#8593;upwards arrow
&uArr;&#8657;upwards double arrow
&clubs;&#9827;black club suit = shamrock
&diams;&#9830;black diamond suit
&hearts;&#9829;black heart suit = valentine
&spades;&#9824;black spade suit (note)
&loz;&#9674;lozenge

The information in this document is Copyright © 1994-2002 W3C ® (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique, Keio University), All Rights Reserved. http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/

The layout of this document is copyright © 2002 Elizabeth Castro. Please don't copy this document. Instead link to it. Thanks!